Exciting and Captivating Relative and Parallel Minor Scales


There are a lot of descriptive terms that are associated with minor scales. For example, you’ve probably hear the terms “relative” minor, “parallel” minor, “natural” minor, “harmonic” minor, and “melodic” minor. What does it all mean? What are the differences between each? Do I really have to memorize all of them?

Students generally get confused because they lump all of these varieties of “minor” into the same basket. It is much easier to think of these descriptive terms in two separate categories. Relative and parallel minor refer to a tonal center; natural, harmonic, and melodic minor refer to various modes of a minor scale. In this article, we’ll make sense of the terms “relative” and “parallel” minor.

Relative minor is related to a major key. the major and relative minor key share the same key signature. Let’s take a look at how this works.

Below are two scales, F major and D minor.

relative and parallel minor

Notice that both scales have the same key signature (one flat, Bb). Notice that the individual notes in both scales are exactly the same, the only difference being the starting note of each scale. Because these two scales share the same key signature, and therefore the same individual notes, we call them relative.

The next logical question regarding these related major and minor scales might be, “How do I know which minor scale is related to a given major scale?” The answer is that the relative minor scale is based on the 6th degree of the major scale. Sound confusing? Let’s explain.

First, we’ll take a major scale, any major scale. In this instance we’ll use the key of Ab major, which has 4 flats – Bb, Eb, Ab, Db. Notice that we’ve labeled each degree of the scale.

relative and parallel minor 2

The relative minor can be formed by finding the 6th degree of any major scale. In this example, the 6th degree of Ab major is F. So if we play the same scale (with the same key signature) starting on F, we will have played an F minor scale (natural minor).

relative and parallel minor 3

Parallel minor does not share the same key signature as a major key. The only thing shared by a major key and the parallel minor is the root, or starting note. Let’s take the key of D major. The relative minor of D major is B minor, because ‘B’ is the 6th degree of the D major scale and B minor shares the same key signature as D major. The parallel minor of D major is D minor. The only thing that is shared is the root, or starting pitch.

relative and parallel minor 4

In order to convert a major scale to a minor scale (natural minor), the 3rd, 6th, and 7th degrees are lowered by a half-step.

Next, we will discuss the various modes of minor – natural, harmonic, and melodic.

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Jazzedge Teachers

Welcome Paul Buono

Paul Buono has returned to the JazzEdge family as an instructor.  His professional piano/keyboard experience includes national and international touring, university professor, musical director, pit

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  1. i’ve known about these relative & parallel scales, but i always think of the parallel minor as having the same note names as the major scale it’s parallel to, without the accidentals or key signature.

  2. Thank you Willie. This brief lesson was very easy and clear to understand. I need to learn how to think of using minor scales more in the songs.

  3. Ok…..that makes sense to me and has for a while. However…..I do not understand why you say that the only thing a major scale and parallel minor scale have in common is the root when the 2nd, 4th, and 5th degrees are also the same notes in both scales.

    Is it because of how those notes are denoted in the key signature?

  4. Thanks Willie for this information. I have known the main 3 minor scales which are Relative, Harmonic, and Melodic from all my private piano lessons in the past. First time I have heard a minor scale called Parallel. Learn something new every day. Take care

  5. To find the relative minor, I learned simply to count 3 half-steps downward below the first note of the major key to find the relative minor key. Try it with C maj. From C, play B, Bflat, arrive at A.

JPC glossary / key

  • RH – right hand
  • LH – left hand
  • HT – hands together
  • CM – contrary motion (to move in opposite directions)
  • Harmonically – to play as chords (all notes together at once)
  • Melodically – to play as a melody (single note) – arpeggiate
  • R7, R3, R37 – chord shells (Root-7th, Root-3rd, Root-3rd-7th respectively)
  • bpm – beats per minute. Refers to the metronome setting